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how network ip cameras and nvr work

How IP CCTV System Work?

A network IP camera has an image sensor that captures and digitised the images. The images can be compressed and processed at the camera before sending them out to the Network Video Recorder for storage.

Many IP Cameras provide a TF Card Slot.  The images can be stored on the memory card directly if needed.   Some IP cameras are equipped with their own Video Analytics AI and can process the images directly to detect an intrusion or facial recognition at the Camera front end.   

parts of ip network camera

Network Switches

The images are sent as data over a network. Network switches connect the cameras to storage and monitoring devices.

A network IP camera has an image sensor that captures and digitised the images. The images can be compressed and processed at the camera before sending them out to the Network Video Recorder for storage.

PoE Network Switch for IP Network Cameras

It is common to use PoE (Power over Ethernet) cameras and Switches in the configuration.  The PoE Switches powers the cameras and handle the network switching.  PoE Switches can be 4, 8 or 16 ports.  The distance between the PoE Switches and the Cameras cannot exceed 100m.

Network Video Recorders (NVR)

Network Video Recorder (NVR) stores the images in hard disks. Depending on the model, the NVR can connect 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 cameras.

The cables used are Cat6 and the termination uses RJ45 terminals.  For larger installation, we would recommend using patch panels and placing the NVR in a Server Rack for ease of maintenance and cable management. 

network video recorder

Hard Disk Storage

And for storage, the NVR support 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 hard disks. The hard disk storage support RAID configuration. Note that the hard disk used must be surveillance grade. And for RAID, the hard disk must be Enterprise or NAS grade.

Hikvison NVR with multiple hard disk

Unlike the hard disk used for your computer or laptop, the hard disk used for CCTV is working all the time. It is always reading and writing 60 seconds a minute, 60 minutes an hour, 24 hours a day, every day. The normal hard disk is not designed for such a workload.

Seagate Or Western Digital HDD

We recommend using Seagate Skyhawk or EXOS (for RAID) or Western Digital Purple. The hard disk range from 1 TB to 8 TB and we can expect the capacity to grow beyond 8 TB to greater density. For most home applications, a single hard disk of 4TB can store 8 cameras for up to 30 days. For commercial applications which may need storage for up to 3 months, an array of 6 TB hard disks is not unusual.

cctv nvr uses surveillance grade hard disk

Do note that we recommend changing your hard disk once every 3 years to maintain data integrity. Even though the hard disk is hardier, it can still fail.

Designing Your CCTV System

On your layout plan, decide what you want to protect and monitor.  Once done, we can look for the best place to locate your cameras.

For most home applications, we would place external cameras to cover the perimeter.  And cameras may be placed inside the house if there is a need to keep watch over young children or elderly parents.

For businesses, more cameras may be deployed to watch over entrances and exits, warehouses and stores, Server Rooms and busy reception or corridors.

For some large applications, we use certain projects, we use CCTV Design Software to help determine the coverage and location.  Contact Us and let us walk you through your requirements.

CCTV Design Tools for planning cameras location

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